Intelligent system (Intelligence system) is to produce human intelligence behavior of the computer system. The intelligent system is not only self-organizing and adaptive to run on the traditional Neumann's computer, but also self-organizing and adaptively running on a new generation of non-Neumannian computers. The meaning of "intelligence" is very broad and its essence needs to be further explored. Thus, it is difficult to give a complete and definite definition of the word "intelligence", but it can be said that intelligence is a higher activity of the human brain , It should at least have the ability to automatically acquire and apply knowledge, the ability to think and reason, the ability to solve problems and the ability to automatically learn.
Intelligent system to deal with the object, not only data, but also knowledge. The ability to acquire, access and process knowledge is one of the main differences between intelligent systems and traditional systems. Thus, an intelligent system is also a knowledge-based system that requires the following facilities: knowledge representation language; knowledge organization tools; methods and environments for building, maintaining and querying knowledge bases; and support for reuse of existing knowledge.
Intelligent systems often use artificial intelligence to solve the problem to obtain the results. Compared with the traditional system, there are three obvious characteristics, that is, the problem solving algorithm is often non-deterministic or heuristic; its problem solving relies heavily on knowledge; the problem of intelligent system is often Has the computational complexity of exponential. Intelligent systems usually use the problem solving method can be divided into search, reasoning and planning three categories.
The difference between intelligence and tradition
Another important difference between an intelligent system and a traditional system is that the intelligent system has the capability of field sensing (environmental adaptation). The so-called site induction means that it may interact with the real world's abstraction - the scene - and adapt to this scene. Such contacts include perception, learning, reasoning, judgment and making the appropriate action. This is what is commonly referred to as automatic organization and automatic adaptability.
Also known as knowledge-based operating system. Is a new generation of operating systems that support computers, especially the next generation of computers. It is responsible for managing the resources of the above-mentioned computers, providing users with friendly interfaces and effectively controlling the operation of processes based on knowledge processing and parallel processing. Therefore, it is one of the key technologies to achieve the above-mentioned computer and put into application.
The intelligent operating system will be studied through integrated operating systems and artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Its main research contents are: operating system structure; intelligent resource scheduling; intelligent man-machine interface; support distributed parallel processing mechanism; support knowledge processing mechanism; support multi-media processing mechanism.
In order to carry out research on artificial intelligence and cognitive science, there is a need for a programming language that allows the storage and processing of complex, irregular, frequently changing and unpredictable structures in memory, which is later called For the artificial intelligence programming language. Artificial intelligence programming language and its corresponding compiler (interpreter) composed of artificial intelligence programming language system, will effectively support the preparation and development of intelligent software. The artificial intelligence programming language is characterized by: support for symbolic processing, heuristic search, including uncertain computational steps and the use of fixed computational steps, as well as the exact computational steps of the fixed algorithm used in traditional programming support for fixed data. Uncertain knowledge. Practical artificial intelligence programming languages include functional languages (such as Lisp), logical languages (such as Prolog) and knowledge engineering language (Ops5), the most widely used is Lisp and Prolog and its deformation.
The Lisp language is suitable for symbol handling, and the only object it handles is a symbolic expression (also called an S-expression). All the procedures and data are composed of S-expression, the main control structure is recursive. Prolog language is based on first-order predicate calculus. Its data structure is the item, all the procedures and data are composed of items, but also the use of recursion as its main control structure. In addition, Prolog can automatically achieve pattern matching and backtracking.
Support the environment
Also known as knowledge-based software engineering assistance system. It leverages a wealth of expertise that is closely related to the field of software engineering and provides advice and advice on software engineering expertise for difficult and complex software development and maintenance activities. The intelligent software engineering support environment has the following main functions: support the entire life cycle of the software system; support the activities of the software product production; as a software engineering agent; as a public environmental knowledge base and information database facilities; from different projects to sum up and learn Which lessons, and apply it to the subsequent software production activities.
The expert system is a kind of computer software which can help the human experts to solve the problem in the limited but difficult real world field, which has the intelligent expert system called the intelligent expert system. It has the following basic characteristics: not only in the calculation of tasks based on computing, such as numerical calculation or information retrieval, but also in the task of asking for reason to help. This field must be a field of human experts to solve the problem; its reasoning is modeled after the reasoning of human experts; not only the representation of the field of processing, but also its own representation, internal structure and function representation; The interface of natural language communication makes human experts can use directly; with learning function.
Refers to the application of artificial intelligence technology or knowledge engineering technology in an application area and the development of the application system. Obviously, with the progress of artificial intelligence or knowledge engineering, such systems are also increasing. Intelligent application systems are one of the major advances in artificial intelligence.